Global Consortium
for Chemosensory Research

COVID-19 Projects

Global Consortium for Chemosensory Research (GCCR) is a diverse group of scientists, clinicians, patient advocates, and community partners that formed during the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020. Members are distributed across 30 countries on five continents.

Research question & prediction

How prevalent is smell loss during COVID-19? Is COVID-19 related smell loss greater than smell loss due to other viral or respiratory illnesses? We predict that self-reported smell ability for respondents with COVID-19 will be lower than that of respondents without illness or those with other viral or respiratory illnesses.


This questionnaire includes items on smell, taste and chemesthesis function, as well as the collection of information on COVID-19 diagnosis. We also ask about COVID-19 symptoms, other viral and respiratory illness symptoms, other medical conditions, smoking, and medicine use. This will allow us to draw conclusions about how important the reports of loss of smell are relative to other symptoms of COVID-19 and if reports of loss of smell can aid in distinguishing between COVID-19 and other illnesses. Collecting data globally has the advantage of a large sample size and a reduced influence of local factors.


Arabic, Assamese, Bengali, Chinese (simplified), Chinese (traditional), Dutch, Danish, English, French, Finnish, German, Gujarati, Greek, Hebrew, Hind, Italian, Japanese, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Portuguese, Punjabi, Russian, Spanish, Swedish, Slovene, Turkish, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu

OSF page

Details of the questionnaire can be found on our OSF page. Here we describe our planned data processing, statistical tests for hypothesis testing and exploratory analyses. You may also find the preregistration of this study there. You can download simulated data there. Data analysis scripts are available and anonymised data will also be made public there.


You can take the questionnaire on this page.

The ability to smell, taste and the sensitivity to irritation in the nose and mouth can be impaired for various reasons - for example, in respiratory diseases by cold viruses and also by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV2; CoViD-19) or even by completely different diseases.

We would like to investigate how these senses fluctuate over time. The results will help to assess whether the senses are more or less affected in COVID-19 than in other diseases and healthy people.

Filter tags:
  • pROC: an open-source package for R and S+ to analyze and compare ROC curves
    Robin, X. et al. (2011) BMC Bioinformatics 10.1186/1471-2105-12-77
  • Gustatory dysfunctions in COVID-19
    Lechien, J. R. et al. (2020) Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 10.1007/s00405-020-06154-w
  • Prevalence of Chemosensory Dysfunction in COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Reveals Significant Ethnic Differences
    von Bartheld, C. S. et al. (2020) ACS Chem. Neurosci. 10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00460
  • One-Seventh of Patients with COVID-19 Had Olfactory and Gustatory Abnormalities as Their Initial Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Chi, H. et al. (2020) Life 10.3390/life10090158
  • Loss of Taste and Smell are Common Clinical Characteristics of Patients with COVID-19 in Somalia: A Retrospective Double Centre Study
    Farah Yusuf Mohamud, M. et al. (2020) Infect Drug Resist 10.2147/IDR.S263632
  • Neurological manifestations of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis of proportions
    Favas, T. T. et al. (2020) Neurol Sci 10.1007/s10072-020-04801-y
  • Anosmia is associated with lower in-hospital mortality in COVID-19
    Talavera, B. et al. (2020) Journal of the Neurological Sciences 10.1016/j.jns.2020.117163
  • Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Smell and Taste Disorders in COVID-19
    Ibekwe, T. S. et al. (2020) OTO Open 10.1177/2473974X20957975
  • Gustatory Dysfunction: A Highly Specific and Smell-Independent Symptom of COVID-19
    Vaira, L. A. et al. (2020) Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 10.1007/s12070-020-02182-4
  • Gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients: a rapid systematic review on 27,687 cases
    Cirillo, N. et al. (2021) Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 10.1080/00016357.2020.1869828
  • Epidemiological, otolaryngological, olfactory and gustatory outcomes according to the severity of COVID-19: a study of 2579 patients
    Lechien, J. R. et al. (2021) Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 10.1007/s00405-020-06548-w
  • Prevalence and Characteristics of Taste Disorders in Cases of COVID-19: A Meta-analysis of 29,349 Patients
    Saniasiaya, J. et al. (2020) Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 10.1177/0194599820981018
  • Patterns of Gustatory Recovery in Patients Affected by the COVID-19 Outbreak
    Chiesa-Estomba, C. M. et al. (2020) Virol. Sin. 10.1007/s12250-020-00272-9
  • Ageusia, A Highly Specific Symptom of COVID-19, for Which an Unaware Patient May Seek Dental Assistance
    Salzano, G. et al. (2021) Int Dent J 10.1111/idj.12620
  • COVID-19 Viral Load in the Severity of and Recovery From Olfactory and Gustatory Dysfunction
    Cho, R. H. W. et al. (2020) The Laryngoscope
  • Relationship between disease severity and serum IL-6 levels in COVID-19 anosmia
    Sanli, D. E. T. et al. (2021) American Journal of Otolaryngology 10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102796
  • Olfactory and gustatory function impairment in COVID-19 patients: Italian objective multicenter-study
    Vaira, L. A. et al. (2020) Head & Neck
  • Objective gustatory and olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients: a prospective cross-sectional study
    Singer-Cornelius, T. et al. (2021) Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 10.1007/s00405-020-06590-8
  • Symposium Overview
    Rawson, N. E. et al. (2009) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Causes Multiple Organ Damage and Lethal Disease in Mice Transgenic for Human Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4
    Li, K. et al. (2016) The Journal of Infectious Diseases 10.1093/infdis/jiv499
  • Sudden olfactory loss as an early marker of COVID-19: a nationwide Italian survey
    Spadera, L. et al. (2020) Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 10.1007/s00405-020-06252-9
  • Symptoms and recovery among adult outpatients with and without COVID-19 at 11 healthcare facilities-July 2020, United States
    Fisher, K. A. et al. (2021) Influenza Other Respir Viruses 10.1111/irv.12832
  • SCENTinel 1.0 : development of a rapid test to screen for smell loss
    Parma, V. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.12.10.20244301
  • Estimation of Olfactory Sensitivity Using a Bayesian Adaptive Method
    Höchenberger, R. et al. (2019) Nutrients 10.3390/nu11061278
  • A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019
    Zhu, N. et al. (2020) New England Journal of Medicine 10.1056/NEJMoa2001017
  • Alterations in Smell or Taste in Mildly Symptomatic Outpatients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection
    Spinato, G. et al. (2020) JAMA 10.1001/jama.2020.6771
  • Recent smell loss is the best predictor of COVID-19 among individuals with recent respiratory symptoms
    Gerkin, R. C. et al. (2020) Chemical Senses 10.1093/chemse/bjaa081
  • Real-time tracking of self-reported symptoms to predict potential COVID-19
    Menni, C. et al. (2020) Nat Med 10.1038/s41591-020-0916-2
  • Objective Sensory Testing Methods Reveal a Higher Prevalence of Olfactory Loss in COVID-19–Positive Patients Compared to Subjective Methods: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Hannum, M. E. et al. (2020) Chemical Senses 10.1093/chemse/bjaa064
  • Modeling COVID-19 scenarios for the United States
    Reiner, R. C. et al. (2020) Nature Medicine 10.1038/s41591-020-1132-9
  • Smell loss is a prognostic factor for lower severity of coronavirus disease 2019
    Foster, K. J. et al. (2020) Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 10.1016/j.anai.2020.07.023
  • University of pennsylvania smell identification test: A rapid quantitative olfactory function test for the clinic
    Doty, R. L. et al. (1984) The Laryngoscope 10.1288/00005537-198402000-00004
  • A mathematical Theory of Communication
    Shannon, C. (1948) The Bell System Technical Journal 10.1002/j.1538-7305.1948.tb01338.x.
  • A question of terminology
    Kreer, J. (1957) IRE Transactions on Information Theory doi: 10.1109/TIT.1957.1057418.
  • COVID-19-associated olfactory dysfunction reveals SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion and persistence in the olfactory system
    Melo, G. D. D. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.11.18.388819
  • COVID-19-associated olfactory dysfunction reveals SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion and persistence in the olfactory system
    Melo, G. D. D. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.11.18.388819
  • SARS-CoV-2 infection causes transient olfactory dysfunction in mice
    Qin, C. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.11.10.376673
  • Tracking Smell Loss to Identify Healthcare Workers with SARS-CoV-2 Infection
    Weiss, J. J. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.09.07.20188813
  • Potential Mechanisms for COVID-19 Induced Anosmia and Dysgeusia
    Eshraghi, A. A. et al. (2020) Front Physiol 10.3389/fphys.2020.01039
  • Objective sensory testing methods reveal a higher prevalence of olfactory loss in COVID-19–positive patients compared to subjective methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Hannum, M. E. et al. Chem Senses 10.1093/chemse/bjaa064
  • Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients: A meta-analysis study
    Hajikhani, B. et al. (2020) Physiological Reports 10.14814/phy2.14578
  • Anosmia and loss of smell in the era of covid-19
    Walker, A. et al. (2020) BMJ 10.1136/bmj.m2808
  • The COVID-19 may help enlightening how emotional food is
    Coppin, G. (2020) NPJ Sci Food 10.1038/s41538-020-00071-2
  • Epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory findings of the COVID-19 in the current pandemic: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Xie, Y. et al. (2020) BMC Infect. Dis. 10.1186/s12879-020-05371-2
  • Comparison of COVID-19 and common cold chemosensory dysfunction
    Huart, C. et al. (2020) Rhinology 10.4193/Rhin20.251
  • It is Time to Address Airborne Transmission of COVID-19
    Morawska, L. et al. (2020) Clinical Infectious Diseases 10.1093/cid/ciaa939
  • High SARS-CoV-2 Attack Rate Following Exposure at a Choir Practice — Skagit County, Washington, March 2020
    Hamner, L. et al. (2020) MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 10.15585/mmwr.mm6919e6
  • How can airborne transmission of COVID-19 indoors be minimised?
    Morawska, L. et al. (2020) Environment International 10.1016/j.envint.2020.105832
  • COVID-19 Outbreak Associated with Air Conditioning in Restaurant, Guangzhou, China, 2020
    Lu, J. et al. (2020) Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10.3201/eid2607.200764
  • Is Office Laryngoscopy an Aerosol‐Generating Procedure?
    Rameau, A. et al. (2020) The Laryngoscope 10.1002/lary.28973
  • Association of subjective olfactory dysfunction and 12-item odor identification testing in ambulatory COVID-19 patients
    Prajapati, D. P. et al. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol
  • Skull‐base surgery during the COVID‐19 pandemic: the Italian Skull Base Society recommendations
    Castelnuovo, P. et al. (2020) Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 10.1002/alr.22596
  • Psychophysical evaluation of chemosensory functions 5 weeks after olfactory loss due to COVID-19: a prospective cohort study on 72 patients
    Le Bon, S. et al. (2020) Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 10.1007/s00405-020-06267-2
  • Clinical and Radiological Evaluations of COVID ‐19 Patients With Anosmia: Preliminary Report
    Lechien, J. R. et al. (2020) The Laryngoscope 10.1002/lary.28993
  • Prevalence and Reversibility of Smell Dysfunction Measured Psychophysically in a Cohort of COVID‐19 patients
    Moein, S. T. et al. (2020) Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 10.1002/alr.22680
  • Cardiovascular Collapse following Povidone-Iodine Wash
    Ramaswamykanive, H. et al. (2011) Anaesthesia and Intensive Care 10.1177/0310057X1103900121
  • Betadine has a ciliotoxic effect on ciliated human respiratory cells
    Kim, J. H. et al. (2015) J. Laryngol. Otol. 10.1017/S0022215114002746
  • Consideration of povidone-iodine as a public health intervention for COVID-19: Utilization as “Personal Protective Equipment” for frontline providers exposed in high-risk head and neck and skull base oncology care
    Mady, L. J. et al. (2020) Oral Oncology 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2020.104724
  • Possible site of the in vivo disposition of sodium nitroprusside in the rat
    Kreye, V. A. et al. (1982) Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 10.1007/BF00510138
  • Reply to: Self‐reported olfactory loss in COVID‐19: is it really a favorable prognostic factor?
    Yan, C. H. et al. (2020) Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 10.1002/alr.22606
  • Do olfactory and gustatory psychophysical scores have prognostic value in COVID-19 patients? A prospective study of 106 patients
    Vaira, L. A. et al. (2020) J of Otolaryngol - Head & Neck Surg 10.1186/s40463-020-00449-y
  • Psychophysical tests reveal impaired olfaction but preserved gustation in COVID‐19 patients
    Hintschich, C. A. et al. (2020) Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 10.1002/alr.22655
  • Characteristics of 1573 healthcare workers who underwent nasopharyngeal swab testing for SARS-CoV-2 in Milan, Lombardy, Italy
    Lombardi, A. et al. (2020) Clinical Microbiology and Infection 10.1016/j.cmi.2020.06.013
  • Self-reported alteration of sense of smell or taste in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis on 3563 patients
    Borsetto, D. et al. (2020) Rhinology
  • Smell and Taste Dysfunction in Patients With COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Agyeman, A. A. et al. (2020) Mayo Clinic Proceedings
  • Predicting COVID-19 Incidence Using Anosmia and Other COVID-19 Symptomatology: Preliminary Analysis Using Google and Twitter
    Panuganti, B. A. et al. Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery 10.1177/0194599820932128
  • Loss of smell and taste: a new marker of COVID-19? Tracking reduced sense of smell during the coronavirus pandemic using search trends
    Cherry, G. et al. (2020) Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 10.1080/14787210.2020.1792289
  • Prolonged complaints of chemosensory loss after COVID-19
    Fjaeldstad, A. W. Dan Med J
  • Recent smell loss is the best predictor of COVID-19: a preregistered, cross-sectional study
    Gerkin, R. C. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.07.22.20157263
  • Scikit-learn: Machine Learning in Python
    Pedregosa, F. et al. (2011) Journal of Machine Learning Research
  • ‘Sniffin’ Sticks': Olfactory Performance Assessed by the Combined Testing of Odor Identification, Odor Discrimination and Olfactory Threshold
    Hummel, T. et al. (1997) Chem Senses 10.1093/chemse/22.1.39
  • Updated Sniffin’ Sticks normative data based on an extended sample of 9139 subjects
    Oleszkiewicz, A. et al. (2019) Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 10.1007/s00405-018-5248-1
  • University of pennsylvania smell identification test: A rapid quantitative olfactory function test for the clinic
    Doty, R. L. et al. (1984) The Laryngoscope 10.1288/00005537-198402000-00004
  • Patterns of smell recovery in 751 patients affected by the COVID-19 outbreak
    Chiesa‐Estomba, C. M. et al. European Journal of Neurology 10.1111/ene.14440
  • Olfaction as a marker for depression in humans
    Croy, I. et al. (2014) Journal of Affective Disorders 10.1016/j.jad.2013.12.026
  • Associations of olfactory dysfunction with anthropometric and cardiometabolic measures: Findings from the 2013–2014 national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES)
    Gallo, S. et al. (2020) Physiology & Behavior 10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.112702
  • Olfactory Disorders and Quality of Life--An Updated Review
    Croy, I. et al. (2014) Chemical Senses 10.1093/chemse/bjt072
  • Sense of smell disorder and health-related quality of life.
    Smeets, M. A. M. et al. (2009) Rehabilitation Psychology 10.1037/a0017502
  • Persistent Smell Loss Following Undetectable SARS-CoV-2:
    Yan, C. H. et al. (2020) Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery 10.1177/0194599820934769
  • Objective olfactory evaluation of self-reported loss of smell in a case series of 86 COVID-19 patients
    Lechien, J. R. et al. (2020) Head & Neck 10.1002/hed.26279
  • Anosmia in COVID-19 patients
    Hornuss, D. et al. (2020) Clin Microbiol Infect 10.1016/j.cmi.2020.05.017
  • Clinical characteristics of asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with mild COVID-19
    Kim, G. et al. (2020) Clinical Microbiology and Infection 10.1016/j.cmi.2020.04.040
  • Smell and taste disorders
    Hummel, T. et al. (2011) GMS Curr Top Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 10.3205/cto000077
  • Smell and taste disorders in primary care
    Malaty, J. et al. (2013) Am Fam Physician
  • Nutrition and taste and smell dysfunction
    Kershaw, J. C. et al. (2018) World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 10.1016/j.wjorl.2018.02.006
  • The prevalence of symptoms in 24,410 adults infected by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis of 148 studies from 9 countries
    Grant, M. C. et al. (2020) PLOS ONE 10.1371/journal.pone.0234765
  • Longitudinal symptom dynamics of COVID-19 infection in primary care
    Mizrahi, B. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.07.13.20151795
  • Anosmia—A Clinical Review
    Boesveldt, S. et al. (2017) Chem Senses 10.1093/chemse/bjx025
  • Variation in False-Negative Rate of Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction–Based SARS-CoV-2 Tests by Time Since Exposure
    Kucirka, L. M. et al. (2020) Annals of Internal Medicine 10.7326/M20-1495
  • Using Visual Analogue Scales in eHealth: Non-Response Effects in a Lifestyle Intervention
    Kuhlmann, T. et al. (2016) J Med Internet Res 10.2196/jmir.5271
  • Crowdsourced data collection for public health: A comparison with nationally representative, population tobacco use data
    Kraemer, J. D. et al. (2017) Preventive Medicine 10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.07.006
  • Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1
    van Doremalen, N. et al. (2020) New England Journal of Medicine 10.1056/NEJMc2004973
  • Olfactory and Gustatory Outcomes in COVID-19: A Prospective Evaluation in Nonhospitalized Subjects
    Paderno, A. et al. (2020) Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery 10.1177/0194599820939538
  • Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Spain (ENE-COVID): a nationwide, population-based seroepidemiological study
    Pollán, M. et al. (2020) The Lancet 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31483-5
  • Paranasal sinuses computed tomography findings in anosmia of COVID-19
    Naeini, A. S. et al. (2020) American Journal of Otolaryngology 10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102636
  • COVID-19 and the chemical senses: supporting players take center stage
    Cooper, K. W. et al. (2020) Neuron 10.1016/j.neuron.2020.06.032
  • More than smell – COVID-19 is associated with severe impairment of smell, taste, and chemesthesis
    Parma, V. et al. (2020) Chemical Senses 10.1093/chemse/bjaa041
  • Neuromechanisms of SARS-CoV-2: A Review
    DosSantos, M. F. et al. (2020) Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 10.3389/fnana.2020.00037
  • Standardized Testing Demonstrates Altered Odor Detection Sensitivity and Hedonics in Asymptomatic College Students as SARS-CoV-2 Emerged Locally
    Walsh-Messinger, J. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.06.17.20106302
  • Coronavirus Disease 2019–COVID-19
    Dhama, K. et al. (2020) Clinical Microbiology Reviews
  • Olfactory and gustatory abnormalities in COVID-19 cases
    Altin, F. et al. (2020) Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 10.1007/s00405-020-06155-9
  • Broad and differential animal ACE2 receptor usage by SARS-CoV-2
    Zhao, X. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.04.19.048710
  • Genome-Wide Analysis of Gene Expression in Primate Taste Buds Reveals Links to Diverse Processes
    Hevezi, P. et al. (2009) PLOS ONE 10.1371/journal.pone.0006395
  • Receptor Recognition by the Novel Coronavirus from Wuhan: an Analysis Based on Decade-Long Structural Studies of SARS Coronavirus
    Wan, Y. et al. (2020) Journal of Virology 10.1128/jvi.00127-20
  • Acute encephalopathy with elevated CSF inflammatory markers as the initial presentation of COVID-19
    Farhadian, S. et al. (2020) BMC Neurology 10.1186/s12883-020-01812-2
  • Expression of Renin-Angiotensin System Components in the Taste Organ of Mice
    Shigemura, N. et al. (2019) Nutrients 10.3390/nu11092251
  • Olfactory Function in Acute Rhinitisa
    Hummel, T. et al. (1998) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1998.tb10632.x
  • Neuroinvasion and Inflammation in Viral Central Nervous System Infections
    Dahm, T. et al. (2016) Mediators of Inflammation 10.1155/2016/8562805
  • A Mouse Model of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Pathogenesis
    Sun, S. et al. (2020) Cell Host & Microbe
  • Bilateral transient olfactory bulbs edema during COVID-19-related anosmia
    Laurendon, T. et al. (2020) Neurology 10.1212/wnl.0000000000009850
  • Inhibition of PIKfyve kinase prevents infection by Zaire ebolavirus and SARS-CoV-2
    Kang, Y. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.04.21.053058
  • Characterization of spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 on virus entry and its immune cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV
    Ou, X. et al. (2020) Nature Communications 10.1038/s41467-020-15562-9
  • Neuropathological Features of Covid-19
    Solomon, I. H. et al. (2020) New England Journal of Medicine 10.1056/NEJMc2019373
  • Virus Infections in the Nervous System
    Koyuncu, O. O. et al. (2013) Cell Host & Microbe 10.1016/j.chom.2013.03.010
  • SARS-CoV-2 Reverse Genetics Reveals a Variable Infection Gradient in the Respiratory Tract
    Hou, Y. J. et al. (2020) Cell
  • Postmortem Examination of Patients With COVID-19
    Schaller, T. et al. (2020) JAMA 10.1001/jama.2020.8907
  • Pathogenesis and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in golden hamsters
    Sia, S. F. et al. (2020) Nature 10.1038/s41586-020-2342-5
  • Susceptibility of ferrets, cats, dogs, and other domesticated animals to SARS–coronavirus 2
    Shi, J. et al. (2020) Science 10.1126/science.abb7015
  • Anatomy, physiology and function of the nasal cavities in health and disease
    Mygind, N. et al. (1998) Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
  • Taste bud contains both short-lived and long-lived cell populations
    Hamamichi, R. et al. (2006) Neuroscience
  • Respiratory disease in rhesus macaques inoculated with SARS-CoV-2
    Munster, V. J. et al. (2020) Nature 10.1038/s41586-020-2324-7
  • Neuropilin-1 facilitates SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and provides a possible pathway into the central nervous system
    Cantuti-Castelvetri, L. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.06.07.137802
  • Renewal of cells within taste buds
    Beidler, L. M. et al. (1965) Journal of Cell Biology 10.1083/jcb.27.2.263
  • Progress and renewal in gustation: new insights into taste bud development
    Barlow, L. A. (2015) Development 10.1242/dev.120394
  • Olfactory epithelium: Cells, clinical disorders, and insights from an adult stem cell niche
    Choi, R. et al. (2018) Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology 10.1002/lio2.135
  • CALHM1 ion channel mediates purinergic neurotransmission of sweet, bitter and umami tastes
    Taruno, A. et al. (2013) Nature 10.1038/nature11906
  • Chemical synapses without synaptic vesicles: Purinergic neurotransmission through a CALHM1 channel-mitochondrial signaling complex
    Romanov, R. A. et al. (2018) Science signaling 10.1126/scisignal.aao1815
  • Functional Cell Types in Taste Buds Have Distinct Longevities
    Perea-Martinez, I. et al. (2013) PLOS ONE 10.1371/journal.pone.0053399
  • Cell lineage and differentiation in taste buds
    Miura, H. et al. (2006) Archives of Histology and Cytology 10.1679/aohc.69.209
  • Sonic hedgehog–expressing basal cells are general post-mitotic precursors of functional taste receptor cells
    Miura, H. et al. (2014) Developmental Dynamics 10.1002/dvdy.24121
  • Multiple Shh signaling centers participate in fungiform papilla and taste bud formation and maintenance
    Liu, H. X. et al. (2013) Developmental Biology
  • β-Catenin Signaling Biases Multipotent Lingual Epithelial Progenitors to Differentiate and Acquire Specific Taste Cell Fates
    Gaillard, D. et al. (2015) PLOS Genetics 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005208
  • New onset acute symptomatic seizure and risk factors in coronavirus disease 2019: A retrospective multicenter study
    Lu, L. et al. (2020) Epilepsia 10.1111/epi.16524
  • Cell Lineage Mapping of Taste Bud Cells and Keratinocytes in the Mouse Tongue and Soft Palate
    Okubo, T. et al. (2009) STEM CELLS 10.1634/stemcells.2008-0611
  • Three-dimensional reconstructions of mouse circumvallate taste buds using serial blockface scanning electron microscopy: I. Cell types and the apical region of the taste bud
    Yang, R. et al. (2020) J Comp Neurol 10.1002/cne.24779
  • Airway brush cells generate cysteinyl leukotrienes through the ATP sensor P2Y2
    Ualiyeva, S. et al. (2020) Science Immunology 10.1126/sciimmunol.aax7224
  • NQO1 activity in the main and the accessory olfactory systems correlates with the zonal topography of projection maps
    Gussing, F. et al. (2004) Eur J Neurosci 10.1111/j.0953-816X.2004.03331.x
  • SARS-CoV-2 targets cortical neurons of 3D human brain organoids and shows neurodegeneration-like effects
    Gopalakrishnan, J. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.05.20.106575
  • Reversible obstruction of the olfactory cleft: impact on olfactory perception and nasal patency
    Besser, G. et al. (2020) International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology 10.1002/alr.22549
  • Nervous system involvement after infection with COVID-19 and other coronaviruses
    Wu, Y. et al. (2020) Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
  • Sustentacular Cell Enwrapment of Olfactory Receptor Neuronal Dendrites: An Update
    Liang, F. (2020) Genes (Basel) 10.3390/genes11050493
  • Continuous and Overlapping Expression Domains of Odorant Receptor Genes in the Olfactory Epithelium Determine the Dorsal/Ventral Positioning of Glomeruli in the Olfactory Bulb
    Miyamichi, K. et al. (2005) The Journal of Neuroscience 10.1523/jneurosci.0324-05.2005
  • Coronaviruses post-SARS: update on replication and pathogenesis
    Perlman, S. et al. (2009) Nature Reviews Microbiology 10.1038/nrmicro2147
  • Coagulopathy and Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Patients with Covid-19
    Zhang, Y. et al. (2020) New England Journal of Medicine 10.1056/NEJMc2007575
  • A gene locus that controls expression of ACE2 in virus infection
    Ansari, M. A. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.04.26.20080408
  • The spike protein of SARS-CoV — a target for vaccine and therapeutic development
    Du, L. et al. (2009) Nature Reviews Microbiology 10.1038/nrmicro2090
  • The pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in hACE2 transgenic mice
    Bao, L. et al. (2020) Nature 10.1038/s41586-020-2312-y
  • Tissue renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems: Targets for pharmacological therapy
    Bader, M. (2010) Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.010909.105610
  • Function of HAb18G/CD147 in Invasion of Host Cells by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
    Chen, Z. et al. (2005) The Journal of Infectious Diseases 10.1086/427811
  • SARS-CoV-2 invades host cells via a novel route: CD147-spike protein
    Wang, K. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.03.14.988345
  • SARS-CoV-2 Receptor ACE2 Is an Interferon-Stimulated Gene in Human Airway Epithelial Cells and Is Detected in Specific Cell Subsets across Tissues
    Ziegler, C. G. K. et al. (2020) Cell
  • Nasal chemosensory cells use bitter taste signaling to detect irritants and bacterial signals
    Tizzano, M. et al. (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 10.1073/pnas.0911934107
  • Cholinergic neurotransmission links solitary chemosensory cells to nasal inflammation
    Saunders, C. J. et al. (2014) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 10.1073/pnas.1402251111
  • An Airway Protection Program Revealed by Sweeping Genetic Control of Vagal Afferents
    Prescott, S. L. et al. (2020) Cell 10.1016/j.cell.2020.03.004
  • Diversity amongst trigeminal neurons revealed by high throughput single cell sequencing
    Nguyen, M. Q. et al. (2017) PLOS ONE 10.1371/journal.pone.0185543
  • Stereotyped transcriptomic transformation of somatosensory neurons in response to injury
    Nguyen, M. Q. et al. (2019) eLife 10.7554/eLife.49679
  • Transcriptomes and neurotransmitter profiles of classes of gustatory and somatosensory neurons in the geniculate ganglion
    Dvoryanchikov, G. et al. (2017) Nat Commun 10.1038/s41467-017-01095-1
  • Coronaviruses — drug discovery and therapeutic options
    Zumla, A. et al. (2016) Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 10.1038/nrd.2015.37
  • Sour Sensing from the Tongue to the Brain
    Zhang, J. et al. (2019) Cell 10.1016/j.cell.2019.08.031
  • TMPRSS2 and TMPRSS4 promote SARS-CoV-2 infection of human small intestinal enterocytes
    Zang, R. et al. (2020) Science Immunology 10.1126/sciimmunol.abc3582
  • Principles of Glomerular Organization in the Human Olfactory Bulb – Implications for Odor Processing
    Maresh, A. et al. (2008) PLOS ONE 10.1371/journal.pone.0002640
  • Conserved cell types with divergent features in human versus mouse cortex
    Hodge, R. D. et al. (2019) Nature 10.1038/s41586-019-1506-7
  • Nasal solitary chemoreceptor cell responses to bitter and trigeminal stimulants in vitro
    Gulbransen, B. D. et al. (2008) J Neurophysiol 00066.2008 [pii] 10.1152/jn.00066.2008
  • A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin
    Zhou, P. et al. (2020) Nature 10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7
  • Lgr5-EGFP Marks Taste Bud Stem/Progenitor Cells in Posterior Tongue
    Yee, K. K. et al. (2013) Stem Cells 10.1002/stem.1338
  • Role of the ectonucleotidase NTPDase2 in taste bud function
    Vandenbeuch, A. et al. (2013) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 10.1073/pnas.1309468110
  • Inflammation and Taste Disorders
    Wang, H. et al. (2009) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04480.x
  • The olfactory nerve: a shortcut for influenza and other viral diseases into the central nervous system
    van Riel, D. et al. (2015) The Journal of Pathology 10.1002/path.4461
  • Aquaporin Pathways and Mucin Secretion of Bowman's Glands Might Protect the Olfactory Mucosa
    Solbu, T. T. et al. (2011) Chemical Senses 10.1093/chemse/bjr063
  • Augmented Curation of Unstructured Clinical Notes from a Massive EHR System Reveals Specific Phenotypic Signature of Impending COVID-19 Diagnosis
    Shweta, F. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.04.19.20067660
  • Structural basis of receptor recognition by SARS-CoV-2
    Shang, J. et al. (2020) Nature 10.1038/s41586-020-2179-y
  • Background mechanisms of olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19: expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2, and Furin in the nose and olfactory bulb in human and mice
    Ueha, R. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.05.15.097352
  • Cell entry mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2
    Shang, J. et al. (2020) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10.1073/pnas.2003138117
  • Multiorgan and Renal Tropism of SARS-CoV-2
    Puelles, V. G. et al. (2020) New England Journal of Medicine 10.1056/NEJMc2011400
  • A Single Cell Transcriptomic Atlas Characterizes Aging Tissues in the Mouse
    Pisco, A. O. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/661728
  • Neuroradiologists, Be Mindful of the Neuroinvasive Potential of COVID-19
    Morris, M. et al. (2020) American Journal of Neuroradiology 10.3174/ajnr.A6551
  • Rewiring the taste system
    Lee, H. et al. (2017) Nature 10.1038/nature23299
  • Single-cell transcriptomics of 20 mouse organs creates a Tabula Muris
    Schaum, N. et al. (2018) Nature 10.1038/s41586-018-0590-4
  • Gli3 is a negative regulator of Tas1r3-expressing taste cells
    Qin, Y. et al. (2018) PLoS Genet 10.1371/journal.pgen.1007058
  • Tuft Cells—Systemically Dispersed Sensory Epithelia Integrating Immune and Neural Circuitry
    O'Leary, C. E. et al. (2019) Annual Review of Immunology 10.1146/annurev-immunol-042718-041505
  • Lack of TRPM5-Expressing Microvillous Cells in Mouse Main Olfactory Epithelium Leads to Impaired Odor-Evoked Responses and Olfactory-Guided Behavior in a Challenging Chemical Environment
    Lemons, K. et al. (2017) eneuro 10.1523/eneuro.0135-17.2017
  • Defects in the Peripheral Taste Structure and Function in the MRL/lpr Mouse Model of Autoimmune Disease
    Kim, A. et al. (2012) PLoS One 10.1371/journal.pone.0035588 PONE-D-11-23021 [pii]
  • ATP signaling is crucial for communication from taste buds to gustatory nerves
    Finger, T. E. et al. (2005) Science
  • Postinfectious olfactory loss: A retrospective study on 791 patients
    Cavazzana, A. et al. (2018) The Laryngoscope 10.1002/lary.26606
  • Angiotensin II induces interleukin-6 expression in astrocytes: Role of reactive oxygen species and NF-κB
    Gowrisankar, Y. V. et al. (2016) Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
  • Inflammation arising from obesity reduces taste bud abundance and inhibits renewal
    Kaufman, A. et al. (2018) PLoS Biol 10.1371/journal.pbio.2001959
  • A Multibasic Cleavage Site in the Spike Protein of SARS-CoV-2 Is Essential for Infection of Human Lung Cells
    Hoffmann, M. et al. (2020) Molecular Cell
  • Pericyte-specific vascular expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 – implications for microvascular inflammation and hypercoagulopathy in COVID-19 patients
    He, L. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.05.11.088500
  • Distinct roles for ANG II and ANG-(1–7) in the regulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in rat astrocytes
    Gallagher, P. E. et al. (2006) American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology 10.1152/ajpcell.00409.2004
  • COVID-19 Anosmia Reporting Tool: Initial Findings
    Kaye, R. et al. (2020) Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 10.1177/0194599820922992
  • Neurologic Features in Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection
    Helms, J. et al. (2020) New England Journal of Medicine 10.1056/NEJMc2008597
  • Taste bud homeostasis in health, disease, and aging
    Feng, P. et al. (2014) Chem Senses 10.1093/chemse/bjt059
  • The cell biology of taste
    Chaudhari, N. et al. (2010) J Cell Biol jcb.201003144 [pii] 10.1083/jcb.201003144
  • Features of 16,749 hospitalised UK patients with COVID-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol
    Docherty, A. B. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.04.23.20076042
  • Murine coronavirus neuropathogenesis: determinants of virulence
    Cowley, T. J. et al. (2010) Journal of NeuroVirology 10.1007/BF03210848
  • Lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation attenuates taste progenitor cell proliferation and shortens the life span of taste bud cells
    Cohn, Z. J. et al. (2010) BMC Neurosci 1471-2202-11-72 [pii] 10.1186/1471-2202-11-72
  • Clinical characteristics of 113 deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019: retrospective study
    Chen, T. et al. (2020) BMJ 10.1136/bmj.m1091
  • Elevated ACE2 expression in the olfactory neuroepithelium: implications for anosmia and upper respiratory SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication
    Chen, M. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.05.08.084996
  • The ACE2 expression in human heart indicates new potential mechanism of heart injury among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2
    Chen, L. et al. (2020) Cardiovascular Research 10.1093/cvr/cvaa078
  • Murine encephalitis caused by HCoV-OC43, a human coronavirus with broad species specificity, is partly immune-mediated
    Butler, N. et al. (2006) Virology
  • Characteristics of ischaemic stroke associated with COVID-19
    Beyrouti, R. et al. (2020) Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 10.1136/jnnp-2020-323586
  • Utility of hyposmia and hypogeusia for the diagnosis of COVID-19
    Bénézit, F. et al. (2020) The Lancet Infectious Diseases 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30297-8
  • Chronic Inflammation Directs an Olfactory Stem Cell Functional Switch from Neuroregeneration to Immune Defense
    Chen, M. et al. (2019) Cell Stem Cell 10.1016/j.stem.2019.08.011
  • Effects of the nasal decongestant oxymetazoline on human olfactory and intranasal trigeminal function in acute rhinitis
    Hummel, T. et al. (1998) European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10.1007/s002280050507
  • Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-2 is the ecto-ATPase of type I cells in taste buds.
    Bartel, D. et al. (2006) J. Comp. Neurol.
  • Mechanisms of coronavirus cell entry mediated by the viral spike protein
    Belouzard, S. et al. (2012) Viruses 10.3390/v4061011
  • Developing and regenerating a sense of taste
    Barlow, L. A. et al. (2015) Curr Top Dev Biol 10.1016/bs.ctdb.2014.11.012
  • Pericytes: Developmental, Physiological, and Pathological Perspectives, Problems, and Promises
    Armulik, A. et al. (2011) Developmental Cell 10.1016/j.devcel.2011.07.001
  • Chemosensory Properties of the Trigeminal System
    Viana, F. (2011) ACS Chemical Neuroscience 10.1021/cn100102c
  • Detection of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in the Brain: Potential Role of the Chemokine Mig in Pathogenesis
    Xu, J. et al. (2005) Clinical Infectious Diseases 10.1086/444461
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection Causes Neuronal Death in the Absence of Encephalitis in Mice Transgenic for Human ACE2
    Netland, J. et al. (2008) Journal of Virology 10.1128/jvi.00737-08
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection of Mice Transgenic for the Human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 Virus Receptor
    Tseng, C. K. et al. (2007) Journal of Virology 10.1128/jvi.01702-06
  • Intranasal inoculation with the olfactory bulb line variant of mouse hepatitis virus causes extensive destruction of the olfactory bulb and accelerated turnover of neurons in the olfactory epithelium of mice
    Schwob, J. E. et al. (2001) Chemical Senses 10.1093/chemse/26.8.937
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus
    Li, W. et al. (2003) Nature 10.1038/nature02145
  • Axonal Transport Enables Neuron-to-Neuron Propagation of Human Coronavirus OC43
    Dubé, M. et al. (2018) Journal of Virology 10.1128/JVI.00404-18
  • Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis
    Hamming, I. et al. (2004) The Journal of pathology papers3://publication/doi/10.1002/path.1570
  • Olfaction and anosmia in rhinosinusitis
    Dalton, P. (2004) Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 10.1007/s11882-004-0031-3
  • The Olfactory Nerve and Not the Trigeminal Nerve Is the Major Site of CNS Entry for Mouse Hepatitis Virus, Strain JHM
    Barnett, E. M. et al. (1993) Virology 10.1006/viro.1993.1248
  • Inflammatory obstruction of the olfactory clefts and olfactory loss in humans: a new syndrome?
    Trotier, D. et al. (2007) Chemical senses
  • Post-infectious olfactory loss: a cohort study and update
    Rombaux, P. et al. (2009) B-ENT
  • Postviral Olfactory Dysfunction
    Jafek, B. W. et al. (1990) American Journal of Rhinology 10.2500/105065890782009497
  • The role of viruses in the clinical presentation of chronic rhinosinusitis
    Rowan, N. R. et al. (2015) American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy 10.2500/ajra.2015.29.4242
  • Olfactory Threshold and Nasal Mucosal Changes in Experimentally Induced Common Cold
    Åkerlund, A. et al. (1995) Acta Oto-Laryngologica 10.3109/00016489509133353
  • Effect of anatomy on human nasal air flow and odorant transport patterns: implications for olfaction
    Zhao, K. et al. (2004) Chemical Senses 10.1093/chemse/bjh033
  • Conductive olfactory losses in chronic rhinosinusitis? A computational fluid dynamics study of 29 patients: Conductive olfactory losses
    Zhao, K. et al. (2014) International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology 10.1002/alr.21272
  • Is chronic rhinosinusitis caused by persistent respiratory virus infection?
    Wood, A. J. et al. (2011) International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology 10.1002/alr.20030
  • Re-establishment of olfactory and taste functions
    Welge-Lüssen, A. (2005) GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
  • Olfactory loss in chronic rhinosinusitis is associated with neuronal activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase: JNK activation in CRS-associated olfactory loss
    Victores, A. J. et al. (2018) International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology 10.1002/alr.22053
  • High expression of ACE2 receptor of 2019-nCoV on the epithelial cells of oral mucosa
    Xu, H. et al. (2020) International Journal of Oral Science 10.1038/s41368-020-0074-x
  • Mucous Cytokine Levels in Chronic Rhinosinusitis-Associated Olfactory Loss
    Schlosser, R. J. et al. (2016) JAMA otolaryngology– head & neck surgery 10.1001/jamaoto.2016.0927
  • Taste buds: cells, signals and synapses
    Roper, S. D. et al. (2017) Nature Reviews. Neuroscience 10.1038/nrn.2017.68
  • COVID-19–associated Acute Hemorrhagic Necrotizing Encephalopathy: CT and MRI Features
    Poyiadji, N. et al. (2020) Radiology 10.1148/radiol.2020201187
  • Integrated analyses of single-cell atlases reveal age, gender, and smoking status associations with cell type-specific expression of mediators of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry and highlights inflammatory programs in putative target cells
    Muus, C. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.04.19.049254
  • Viruses and Bacteria in the Etiology of the Common Cold
    Mäkelä, M. J. et al. (1998) Journal of Clinical Microbiology
  • The neuroinvasive potential of SARS‐CoV2 may be at least partially responsible for the respiratory failure of COVID‐19 patients
    Li, Y. et al. (2020) Journal of Medical Virology 10.1002/jmv.25728
  • Distortion of Olfactory Perception: Diagnosis and Treatment
    Leopold, D. (2002) Chemical Senses 10.1093/chemse/27.7.611
  • Neurologic Manifestations of Hospitalized Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Wuhan, China
    Mao, L. et al. (2020) JAMA Neurology 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.1127
  • Detection of SARS coronavirus RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with severe acute respiratory syndrome
    Hung, E. C. W. et al. (2003) Clinical Chemistry 10.1373/clinchem.2003.025437
  • SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Depends on ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and Is Blocked by a Clinically Proven Protease Inhibitor
    Hoffmann, M. et al. (2020) Cell 10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.052
  • Long-term Follow-up of Olfactory Loss Secondary to Head Trauma and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
    Duncan, H. J. et al. (1995) Archives of Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery 10.1001/archotol.1995.01890100087015
  • Methimazole-induced damage in the olfactory mucosa: effects on ultrastructure and glutathione levels
    Bergström, U. et al. (2003) Toxicologic pathology
  • Novel genes for potential ligand-binding proteins in subregions of the olfactory mucosa
    Dear, T. N. et al. (1991) EMBO J
  • Mice transgenic for human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 provide a model for SARS coronavirus infection
    Yang, X. H. et al. (2007) Comp Med
  • Single-cell analysis of olfactory neurogenesis and differentiation in adult humans
    Durante, M. A. et al. (2020) Nature Neuroscience 10.1038/s41593-020-0587-9
  • Solitary chemoreceptor cells in the nasal cavity serve as sentinels of respiration
    Finger, T. E. et al. (2003) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 10.1073/pnas.1531172100
  • Intranasal volume and olfactory function
    Damm, M. et al. (2002) Chemical Senses 10.1093/chemse/27.9.831
  • The Olfactory Bulb: An Immunosensory Effector Organ during Neurotropic Viral Infections
    Durrant, D. M. et al. (2016) ACS chemical neuroscience 10.1021/acschemneuro.6b00043
  • The spatial and cell-type distribution of SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 in human and mouse brain
    Chen, R. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.04.07.030650
  • Cluster of COVID-19 in northern France: A retrospective closed cohort study
    Fontanet, A. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.04.18.20071134
  • SARS-CoV-2 productively infects human gut enterocytes
    Lamers, M. M. et al. (2020) Science (New York, NY) papers3://publication/doi/10.1126/science.abc1669
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is reduced in Alzheimer's disease in association with increasing amyloid-β and tau pathology
    Kehoe, P. G. et al. (2016) Alzheimers Res Ther 10.1186/s13195-016-0217-7
  • Stem and progenitor cells of the mammalian olfactory epithelium: Taking poietic license
    Schwob, J. E. et al. (2017) The Journal of Comparative Neurology 10.1002/cne.24105
  • Identifying treatments for taste and smell disorders: gaps and opportunities
    Mainland, J. D. et al. Chem Senses 10.1093/chemse/bjaa038
  • Innate immune signaling in the olfactory epithelium reduces odorant receptor levels: modeling transient smell loss in COVID-19 patients
    Rodriguez, S. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.06.14.20131128
  • Proinflammatory Cytokines in the Olfactory Mucosa Result in COVID-19 Induced Anosmia
    Torabi, A. et al. (2020) ACS Chemical Neuroscience 10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00249
  • Is anosmia the price to pay in an immune-induced scorched-earth policy against COVID-19?
    Le Bon, S. D. et al. (2020) Medical Hypotheses 10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109881
  • Olfactory and Oral Manifestations of COVID-19: Sex-Related Symptoms—A Potential Pathway to Early Diagnosis
    Biadsee, A. et al. (2020) Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 10.1177/0194599820934380
  • Olfactory and Gustatory Dysfunction as an Early Identifier of COVID-19 in Adults and Children: An International Multicenter Study
    Qiu, C. et al. (2020) Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 10.1177/0194599820934376
  • Prevalence and Risk Factors of Self-Reported Smell and Taste Alterations: Results from the 2011–2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)
    Rawal, S. et al. (2016) Chem Senses 10.1093/chemse/bjv057
  • Clinical and immunological assessment of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections
    Long, Q. et al. (2020) Nature Medicine 10.1038/s41591-020-0965-6
  • Massive transient damage of the olfactory epithelium associated with infection of sustentacular cells by SARS-CoV-2 in golden Syrian hamsters
    Bryche, B. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.06.16.151704
  • New onset of loss of smell or taste in household contacts of home-isolated SARS-CoV-2-positive subjects
    Boscolo-Rizzo, P. et al. (2020) Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 10.1007/s00405-020-06066-9
  • Self-reported COVID-19 symptoms on Twitter: An analysis and a research resource
    Sarker, A. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.04.16.20067421
  • COVID-19: Epidemiology, Evolution, and Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives
    Sun, J. et al. (2020) Trends in Molecular Medicine 10.1016/j.molmed.2020.02.008
  • Who should we test for COVID-19? A triage model built from national symptom surveys
    Shoer, S. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.05.18.20105569
  • T cell engagement of cross-presenting microglia protects the brain from a nasal virus infection
    Moseman, E. A. et al. (2020) Science Immunology 10.1126/sciimmunol.abb1817
  • Clinical characteristics associated with persistent olfactory and taste alterations in COVID-19: A preliminary report on 121 patients
    Lovato, A. et al. (2020) American Journal of Otolaryngology 10.1016/j.amjoto.2020.102548
  • Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of 1,420 European Patients with mild-to-moderate Coronavirus Disease 2019
    Lechien, J. R. et al. (2020) Journal of Internal Medicine 10.1111/joim.13089
  • Sensitivity and specifity of prediction models based on gustatory disorders in diagnosing COVID-19 patients: a case-control study.
    Adamczyk, K. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.05.31.20118380
  • Quantifying additional COVID-19 symptoms will save lives
    Menni, C. et al. (2020) The Lancet 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31281-2
  • SARS-CoV-2 entry factors are highly expressed in nasal epithelial cells together with innate immune genes
    Sungnak, W. et al. (2020) Nature medicine papers3://publication/doi/10.1038/s41591-020-0868-6
  • Evidence of the COVID-19 Virus Targeting the CNS: Tissue Distribution, Host–Virus Interaction, and Proposed Neurotropic Mechanisms
    Baig, A. M. et al. (2020) ACS Chem. Neurosci. 10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00122
  • SARS-CoV-2 receptor and entry genes are expressed by sustentacular cells in the human olfactory neuroepithelium
    Fodoulian, L. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.03.31.013268
  • Prevalence of Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infection
    Oran, D. P. et al. (2020) Annals of Internal Medicine 10.7326/M20-3012
  • A primer on viral-associated olfactory loss in the era of COVID-19
    Soler, Z. M. et al. (2020) International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology 10.1002/alr.22578
  • Collider bias undermines our understanding of COVID-19 disease risk and severity
    Griffith, G. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.05.04.20090506
  • Self-reported olfactory loss associates with outpatient clinical course in COVID-19
    Yan, C. H. et al. (2020) International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology 10.1002/alr.22592
  • Smell dysfunction: a biomarker for COVID-19
    Moein, S. T. et al. (2020) International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology 10.1002/alr.22587
  • Presentation of new onset anosmia during the COVID-19 pandemic
    Hopkins, C. et al. (2020) Rhinology 10.4193/Rhin20.116
  • Isolated sudden onset anosmia in COVID-19 infection. A novel syndrome?
    Gane, S. B. et al. (2020) Rhinology 10.4193/Rhin20.114
  • Neuropathogenesis and Neurologic Manifestations of the Coronaviruses in the Age of Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Review
    Zubair, A. S. et al. (2020) JAMA Neurology 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2065
  • Olfactory Dysfunction in COVID-19: Diagnosis and Management
    Whitcroft, K. L. et al. (2020) JAMA 10.1001/jama.2020.8391
  • Utility and limitations of Google searches for tracking disease: the case of taste and smell loss as markers for COVID-19
    Asseo, K. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.05.07.20093955
  • Endothelial cell infection and endotheliitis in COVID-19
    Varga, Z. et al. (2020) The Lancet 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30937-5
  • Quantitative evaluation of olfactory dysfunction in hospitalized patients with Coronavirus [2] (COVID-19)
    Tsivgoulis, G. et al. (2020) J Neurol 10.1007/s00415-020-09935-9
  • Expression of the SARS-CoV-2 Entry Proteins, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, in Cells of the Olfactory Epithelium: Identification of Cell Types and Trends with Age
    Bilinska, K. et al. (2020) ACS Chem. Neurosci. 10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00210
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging Alteration of the Brain in a Patient With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and Anosmia
    Politi, L. S. et al. (2020) JAMA Neurol 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2125
  • Anosmia in COVID-19 patients
    Hornuss, D. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.04.28.20083311
  • Relationship between odor intensity estimates and COVID-19 prevalence prediction in a Swedish population
    Iravani, B. et al. Chem Senses 10.1093/chemse/bjaa034
  • Olfactory disorders following upper respiratory tract infections
    Welge-Lussen, A. et al. (2006) Adv Otorhinolaryngol 10.1159/000093758
  • The use of google trends to investigate the loss of smell related searches during COVID-19 outbreak
    Walker, A. et al. (2020) Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 10.1002/alr.22580
  • Association of chemosensory dysfunction and COVID-19 in patients presenting with influenza-like symptoms
    Yan, C. H. et al. (2020) International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology 10.1002/alr.22579
  • Anosmia and Dysgeusia in the Absence of Other Respiratory Diseases: Should COVID-19 Infection Be Considered?
    Villalba, N. L. et al. (2020) Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 10.12890/2020_001641
  • Self-reported symptoms of covid-19 including symptoms most predictive of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are heritable
    Williams, F. M. K. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.04.22.20072124
  • Smell and taste dysfunction in patients with COVID-19
    Xydakis, M. S. et al. (2020) The Lancet Infectious Diseases 10.1016/s1473-3099(20)30293-0
  • Olfactory function and olfactory bulb volume in patients with postinfectious olfactory loss
    Rombaux, P. et al. (2006) Laryngoscope 10.1097/01.MLG.0000195291.36641.1E
  • Defining the burden of olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19 patients
    Ralli, M. et al. (2020) Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 10.26355/eurrev_202004_20797
  • Objective evaluation of anosmia and ageusia in COVID-19 patients: Single-center experience on 72 cases
    Vaira, L. A. et al. (2020) Head & Neck 10.1002/hed.26204
  • Real-time tracking of self-reported symptoms to predict potential COVID-19
    Menni, C. et al. (2020) Nature Medicine 10.1038/s41591-020-0916-2
  • Smell and taste alterations in Covid-19: a cross-sectional analysis of different cohorts
    Paderno, A. et al. (2020) Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 10.1002/alr.22610
  • Loss of smell and taste in combination with other symptoms is a strong predictor of COVID-19 infection
    Menni, C. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.04.05.20048421
  • Knowledge synthesis from 100 million biomedical documents augments the deep expression profiling of coronavirus receptors
    Venkatakrishnan, A. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.03.24.005702
  • Identification of viruses in patients with postviral olfactory dysfunction
    Suzuki, M. et al. (2007) The Laryngoscope 10.1097/01.mlg.0000249922.37381.1e
  • Alterations in Smell or Taste in Mildly Symptomatic Outpatients With SARS-CoV-2 Infection
    Spinato, G. et al. (2020) JAMA 10.1001/jama.2020.6771
  • Corona Viruses and the Chemical Senses: Past, Present, and Future
    Pellegrino, R. et al. (2020) Chem Senses 10.1093/chemse/bjaa031
  • COVID-19 outbreak in Iraqi Kurdistan: The first report characterizing epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological findings of the disease
    Merza, M. A. et al. (2020) Diabetes Metab Syndr 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.047
  • An epidemiological study of postviral olfactory disorder
    Sugiura, M. et al. (1998) Acta Otolaryngol Suppl 10.1080/00016489850182918
  • Olfactory and Gustatory Dysfunction in Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19)
    Luers, J. C. et al. (2020) Clin Infect Dis 10.1093/cid/ciaa525
  • Sendai Virus Induces Persistent Olfactory Dysfunction in a Murine Model of PVOD via Effects on Apoptosis, Cell Proliferation, and Response to Odorants
    Tian, J. et al. (2016) PLoS One 10.1371/journal.pone.0159033
  • Validation of a self-administered olfactory and gustatory test for the remotely evaluation of COVID-19 patients in home quarantine
    Vaira, L. A. et al. (2020) Head Neck 10.1002/hed.26228
  • Olfactory Dysfunction: A Highly Prevalent Symptom of COVID-19 With Public Health Significance
    Sedaghat, A. R. et al. (2020) Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 10.1177/0194599820926464
  • Smell and taste symptom-based predictive model for COVID-19 diagnosis
    Roland, L. T. et al. (2020) Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 10.1002/alr.22602
  • Anosmia and ageusia are emerging as symptoms in patients with COVID-19: What does the current evidence say?
    Russell, B. et al. (2020) Ecancermedicalscience 10.3332/ecancer.2020.ed98
  • Olfaction in Chronic Rhinosinusitis
    Rombaux, P. et al. (2016) Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 10.1007/s11882-016-0617-6
  • Prevalence and Duration of Acute Loss of Smell or Taste in COVID-19 Patients
    Lee, Y. et al. (2020) J Korean Med Sci 10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e174
  • Clinical Presentation of COVID-19: A Systematic Review Focusing on Upper Airway Symptoms
    Lovato, A. et al. (2020) Ear Nose Throat J 10.1177/0145561320920762
  • Analysis of Imported Cases of COVID-19 in Taiwan: A Nationwide Study
    Liu, J. Y. et al. (2020) Int J Environ Res Public Health 10.3390/ijerph17093311
  • Anosmia and dysgeusia in patients with mild SARS-CoV-2 infection
    Levinson, R. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.04.11.20055483
  • Sudden hyposmia as a prevalent symptom of COVID-19 infection
    Marchese-Ragona, R. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.04.06.20045393
  • Neurological Manifestations of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective case series study
    Mao, L. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.02.22.20026500
  • Olfactory neuropathy in severe acute respiratory syndrome: report of A case
    Hwang, C. S. (2006) Acta Neurol Taiwan
  • [Anosmia and ageusia as primary symptoms of COVID-19]
    Haldrup, M. et al. (2020) Ugeskr Laeger
  • Coincidence of COVID-19 epidemic and olfactory dysfunction outbreak
    Bagheri, S. H. R. et al. (2020) medRxiv
  • Olfactory dysfunction in the COVID-19 outbreak
    Izquierdo-Dominguez, A. et al. (2020) J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 10.18176/jiaci.0567
  • The molecular basis of loss of smell in 2019-nCoV infected individuals
    Gupta, K. et al. (2020) OSF Preprints 10.31219/
  • Olfactory acuity test while pre-symptomatic for COVID-19
    Bell, G. A. (2020) Journal & Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales
  • Early recovery following new onset anosmia during the COVID-19 pandemic – an observational cohort study
    Hopkins, C. et al. (2020) Journal of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 10.1186/s40463-020-00423-8
  • Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions as a clinical presentation of mild-to-moderate forms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a multicenter European study
    Lechien, J. R. et al. (2020) European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 10.1007/s00405-020-05965-1
  • Self-reported Olfactory and Taste Disorders in Patients With Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus 2 Infection: A Cross-sectional Study
    Giacomelli, A. et al. Clin Infect Dis 10.1093/cid/ciaa330
  • Non-neuronal expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry genes in the olfactory system suggests mechanisms underlying COVID-19-associated anosmia
    Brann, D. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.03.25.009084
  • Sudden and Complete Olfactory Loss Function as a Possible Symptom of COVID-19
    Eliezer, M. et al. (2020) JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery 10.1001/jamaoto.2020.0832
  • Predictive value of sudden olfactory loss in the diagnosis of COVID-19
    Haehner, A. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.04.27.20081356
  • Transcriptional profiling reveals TRPM5-expressing cells involved in viral infection in the olfactory epithelium
    Baxter, B. D. et al. (2020) bioRxiv 10.1101/2020.05.14.096016
  • Olfactory Bulb Magnetic Resonance Imaging in SARS-CoV-2-Induced Anosmia: The First Report
    Galougahi, M. K. et al. (2020) Academic Radiology 10.1016/j.acra.2020.04.002
  • Relationship between odor intensity estimates and COVID-19 population prediction in a Swedish sample
    Iravani, B. et al. (2020) medRxiv 10.1101/2020.05.07.20094516
  • Anosmia as a presenting symptom of SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare workers - A systematic review of the literature, case series, and recommendations for clinical assessment and management
    Lechner, M. et al. (2020) Rhinology 10.4193/Rhin20.189
  • Loss of smell or taste as the only symptom of COVID-19
    Hjelmesæth, J. et al. (2020) Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 10.4045/tidsskr.20.0287
  • SARS-CoV-2: Olfaction, Brain Infection, and the Urgent Need for Clinical Samples Allowing Earlier Virus Detection
    Butowt, R. et al. (2020) ACS Chem Neurosci 10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00172
  • High prevalence of olfactory and taste disorder during SARS-CoV-2 infection in outpatients
    De Maria, A. et al. (2020) J Med Virol 10.1002/jmv.25995
  • Sniffing out the evidence; It's now time for public health bodies recognize the link between COVID-19 and smell and taste disturbance
    Lechien, J. R. et al. (2020) Rhinology 10.4193/Rhin20.159
  • Sinonasal pathophysiology of SARS‐CoV‐2 and COVID‐19: A systematic review of the current evidence
    Gengler, I. et al. (2020) Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology 10.1002/lio2.384

    This section was last updated February 09, 2021

    Contact Us

    please feel free to send us an email at